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COBBLER无人值守安装

Linux 蜷缩的蜗牛 1年前 (2017-05-02) 15次浏览 已收录 0个评论

1. Cobbler 介绍

Cobbler 是一个 Linux 服务器安装的服务,可以通过网络启动(PXE)的方式来快速安装、重装物理服务器和虚拟机,同时还可以管理 DHCP,DNS 等。

Cobbler 可以使用命令行方式管理,也提供了基于 Web 的界面管理工具(cobbler-web),还提供了 API 接口,可以方便二次开发使用。

Cobbler 是较早前的 kickstart 的升级版,优点是比较容易配置,还自带 web 界面比较易于管理。

Cobbler 内置了一个轻量级配置管理系统,但它也支持和其它配置管理系统集成,如 Puppet,暂时不支持 SaltStack。

Cobbler 官网

1.1 Cobbler 集成的服务

PXE 服务支持
DHCP 服务管理
DNS 服务管理(可选 bind,dnsmasq)
电源管理
Kickstart 服务支持
YUM 仓库管理
TFTP(PXE 启动时需要)
Apache(提供 kickstart 的安装源,并提供定制化的 kickstart 配置)
1.2 系统环境准备

[root@linux-node1 ~]# sed -i 's/enforcing/disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
[root@linux-node1 ~]# setenforce 0
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS release 6.7 (Final)
[root@linux-node1 ~]# uname -r
2.6.32-573.el6.x86_64
[root@linux-node1 ~]# getenforce
Disabled
[root@linux-node1 ~]# /etc/init.d/iptables status
iptables: Firewall is not running.
[root@linux-node1 ~]# ifconfig eth0|awk -F "[ :]+" 'NR==2 {print $4}'
10.0.0.7
[root@linux-node1 ~]# hostname
linux-node1.example.com
# 配置阿里云的 epel 源
[root@linux-node1 ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/epel.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/epel-6.repo
[root@linux-node1 ~]# wget http://vault.centos.org/6.6/updates/x86_64/Packages/PyYAML-3.10-3.1.el6.x86_64.rpm
[root@linux-node1 ~]# yum install PyYAML-3.10-3.1.el6.x86_64.rpm –y

 

2. Cobbler 安装配置

2.1 安装 Cobbler

[root@linux-node1 ~]# yum -y install cobbler cobbler-web dhcp tftp-server pykickstart httpd
[root@linux-node1 ~]# rpm -ql cobbler  # 查看安装的文件,下面列出部分。
/etc/cobbler                  # 配置文件目录
/etc/cobbler/settings         # cobbler 主配置文件,这个文件是 YAML 格式,Cobbler 是 python 写的程序。
/etc/cobbler/dhcp.template    # DHCP 服务的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/tftpd.template   # tftp 服务的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/rsync.template   # rsync 服务的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/iso              # iso 模板配置文件目录
/etc/cobbler/pxe              # pxe 模板文件目录
/etc/cobbler/power            # 电源的配置文件目录
/etc/cobbler/users.conf       # Web 服务授权配置文件
/etc/cobbler/users.digest     # 用于 web 访问的用户名密码配置文件
/etc/cobbler/dnsmasq.template # DNS 服务的配置模板
/etc/cobbler/modules.conf     # Cobbler 模块配置文件
/var/lib/cobbler              # Cobbler 数据目录
/var/lib/cobbler/config       # 配置文件
/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts   # 默认存放 kickstart 文件
/var/lib/cobbler/loaders      # 存放的各种引导程序
/var/www/cobbler              # 系统安装镜像目录
/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror    # 导入的系统镜像列表
/var/www/cobbler/images       # 导入的系统镜像启动文件
/var/www/cobbler/repo_mirror  # yum 源存储目录
/var/log/cobbler              # 日志目录
/var/log/cobbler/install.log  # 客户端系统安装日志
/var/log/cobbler/cobbler.log  # cobbler 日志

2.2 配置 Cobbler

[root@linux-node1 ~]# /etc/init.d/httpd restart
停止 httpd:                                               [失败]
正在启动 httpd:                                           [确定]
[root@linux-node1 ~]# /etc/init.d/cobblerd start
Starting cobbler daemon:                                   [确定]
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler check  # 检查 Cobbler 的配置,如果看不到下面的结果,再次执行/etc/init.d/cobblerd restart
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:
1 : The 'server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it.
2 : For PXE to be functional, the 'next_server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.
3 : some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
4 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/rsync
5 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
6 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one
7 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them
Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.
# 看着上面的结果,一个一个解决。
# 第 1、2、6 个问题,顺便修改其他功能
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cp /etc/cobbler/settings{,.ori}  # 备份
# server,Cobbler 服务器的 IP。
sed -i 's/server: 127.0.0.1/server: 10.0.0.7/' /etc/cobbler/settings
# next_server,如果用 Cobbler 管理 DHCP,修改本项,作用不解释,看 kickstart。
sed -i 's/next_server: 127.0.0.1/next_server: 10.0.0.7/' /etc/cobbler/settings
# 用 Cobbler 管理 DHCP
sed -i 's/manage_dhcp: 0/manage_dhcp: 1/' /etc/cobbler/settings
# 防止循环装系统,适用于服务器第一启动项是 PXE 启动。
sed -i 's/pxe_just_once: 0/pxe_just_once: 1/' /etc/cobbler/settings
# 设置新装系统的默认 root 密码 123456。下面的命令来源于提示 6。random-phrase-here 为干扰码,可以自行设定。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# openssl passwd -1 -salt 'oldboy' '123456'
$1$oldboy$Npg9Pt9k98Mlg0ZeqHAuN1
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim /etc/cobbler/settings 
default_password_crypted: "$1$oldboy$Npg9Pt9k98Mlg0ZeqHAuN1" 
# 第 3 个问题
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler get-loaders  # 会自动从官网下载
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cd /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/  # 下载的内容
[root@linux-node1 loaders]# ls
COPYING.elilo     COPYING.yaboot  grub-x86_64.efi  menu.c32    README
COPYING.syslinux  elilo-ia64.efi  grub-x86.efi     pxelinux.0  yaboot
# 第 4 个问题
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim /etc/xinetd.d/rsync
disable = no
[root@linux-node1 ~]# /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
停止 xinetd:                                              [确定]
正在启动 xinetd:                                          [确定]
[root@linux-node1 ~]# /etc/init.d/cobblerd restart
Stopping cobbler daemon:                                   [确定]
Starting cobbler daemon:                                   [确定]
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:
1 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories  # 和 debian 系统相关,不需要
2 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them # fence 设备相关,不需要
Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

 

2.3 配置 DHCP

# 修改 cobbler 的 dhcp 模版,不要直接修改 dhcp 本身的配置文件,因为 cobbler 会覆盖。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# vim /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template 
# 仅列出修改过的字段
……
subnet 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
     option routers             10.0.0.2;
     option domain-name-servers 10.0.0.2;
     option subnet-mask         255.255.255.0;
     range dynamic-bootp        10.0.0.100 10.0.0.200;
……

 

2.4 同步 cobbler 配置

# 同步最新 cobbler 配置,它会根据配置自动修改 dhcp 等服务。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler sync   # 同步所有配置,可以仔细看一下 sync 做了什么。
task started: 2015-12-03_204822_sync
task started (id=Sync, time=Thu Dec  3 20:48:22 2015)
running pre-sync triggers
cleaning trees
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
copying bootloaders
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
copying: /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/menu.c32
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot -> /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/memdisk -> /var/lib/tftpboot/memdisk
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
copying distros to tftpboot
copying images
generating PXE configuration files
generating PXE menu structure
rendering DHCP files
generating /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
rendering TFTPD files
generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
cleaning link caches
running post-sync triggers
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
running: dhcpd -t -q
received on stdout: 
received on stderr: 
running: service dhcpd restart
received on stdout: 关闭 dhcpd:[确定]
正在启动 dhcpd:[确定]
received on stderr: 
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
*** TASK COMPLETE ***
# 再看一下 dhcp 的配置文件。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# less /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
# ******************************************************************
# Cobbler managed dhcpd.conf file
# generated from cobbler dhcp.conf template (Thu Dec  3 12:48:23 2015)
# Do NOT make changes to /etc/dhcpd.conf. Instead, make your changes
# in /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template, as /etc/dhcpd.conf will be
# overwritten.
# ******************************************************************
ddns-update-style interim;
…………

 

2.5 开机启动

# 启动相关服务并设置开机启动(可选) 与第二种方法二选一
chkconfig httpd on
chkconfig xinetd on
chkconfig cobblerd on
chkconfig dhcpd on
/etc/init.d/httpd restart
/etc/init.d/xinetd restart
/etc/init.d/cobblerd restart
/etc/init.d/dhcpd restart
# 编写 Cobbler 相关服务启动脚本(可选)
cat >>/etc/init.d/cobbler<<EOF
#!/bin/bash
# chkconfig: 345 80 90
# description:cobbler
case \$1 in
  start)
    /etc/init.d/httpd start
    /etc/init.d/xinetd start
    /etc/init.d/dhcpd start
    /etc/init.d/cobblerd start
    ;;
  stop)
    /etc/init.d/httpd stop
    /etc/init.d/xinetd stop
    /etc/init.d/dhcpd stop
    /etc/init.d/cobblerd stop
    ;;
  restart)
    /etc/init.d/httpd restart
    /etc/init.d/xinetd restart
    /etc/init.d/dhcpd restart
    /etc/init.d/cobblerd restart
    ;;
  status)
    /etc/init.d/httpd status
    /etc/init.d/xinetd status
    /etc/init.d/dhcpd status
    /etc/init.d/cobblerd status
    ;;
  sync)
    cobbler sync
    ;;
  *)
    echo "Input error,please in put 'start|stop|restart|status|sync'!"
    exit 2
    ;;
esac
EOF
# chmod +x /etc/init.d/cobbler
# chkconfig cobbler on

 

3. Cobbler 的命令行管理

3.1 查看命令帮助

[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler
usage
=====
cobbler <distro|profile|system|repo|image|mgmtclass|package|file> ... 
        [add|edit|copy|getks*|list|remove|rename|report] [options|--help]
cobbler <aclsetup|buildiso|import|list|replicate|report|reposync|sync|validateks|version|signature|get-loaders|hardlink> [options|--help]
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler import --help  # 导入镜像
Usage: cobbler [options]
Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --arch=ARCH           OS architecture being imported
  --breed=BREED         the breed being imported
  --os-version=OS_VERSION
                        the version being imported
  --path=PATH           local path or rsync location
  --name=NAME           name, ex 'RHEL-5'
  --available-as=AVAILABLE_AS
                        tree is here, don't mirror
  --kickstart=KICKSTART_FILE
                        assign this kickstart file
  --rsync-flags=RSYNC_FLAGS
                        pass additional flags to rsync
cobbler check    核对当前设置是否有问题
cobbler list     列出所有的 cobbler 元素
cobbler report   列出元素的详细信息
cobbler sync     同步配置到数据目录,更改配置最好都要执行下
cobbler reposync 同步 yum 仓库
cobbler distro   查看导入的发行版系统信息
cobbler system   查看添加的系统信息
cobbler profile  查看配置信息

 

3.2 导入镜像

 

[root@linux-node1 ~]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/  # 挂载 CentOS6 的系统镜像。
# 导入系统镜像
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler import --path=/mnt/ --name=CentOS-6.6-x86_64 --arch=x86_64
# --path 镜像路径
# --name 为安装源定义一个名字
# --arch 指定安装源是 32 位、64 位、ia64, 目前支持的选项有: x86│x86_64│ia64
# 安装源的唯一标示就是根据 name 参数来定义,本例导入成功后,安装源的唯一标示就是:CentOS-6.6-x86_64,如果重复,系统会提示导入失败。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler distro list  # 查看镜像列表
   CentOS-6.6-x86_64
# 镜像存放目录,cobbler 会将镜像中的所有安装文件拷贝到本地一份,放在/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror 下的 CentOS-6.6-x86_64 目录下。因此/var/www/cobbler 目录必须具有足够容纳安装文件的空间。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cd /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/
[root@linux-node1 ks_mirror]# ls
CentOS-6.6-x86_64  config
[root@linux-node1 ks_mirror]# ls CentOS-6.6-x86_64/
CentOS_BuildTag  GPL       LiveOS    RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-7
EFI              images    Packages  RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-Testing-7
EULA             isolinux  repodata  TRANS.TBL

 

3.3 指定 ks.cfg 文件及调整内核参数

# Cobbler 的 ks.cfg 文件存放位置
[root@linux-node1 ks_mirror]# cd /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/
[root@linux-node1 kickstarts]# ls  # 自带很多
default.ks    install_profiles  sample_autoyast.xml  sample_esxi4.ks  sample_old.seed
esxi4-ks.cfg  legacy.ks         sample_end.ks(默认使用的 ks 文件)        sample_esxi5.ks  sample.seed
esxi5-ks.cfg  pxerescue.ks      sample_esx4.ks       sample.ks
[root@linux-node1 kickstarts]# rz  # 上传准备好的 ks 文件
rz waiting to receive.
Starting zmodem transfer.  Press Ctrl+C to cancel.
Transferring Cobbler-CentOS-6.6-x86_64.cfg...
  100%       1 KB       1 KB/sec    00:00:01       0 Errors
[root@linux-node1 kickstarts]# mv Cobbler-CentOS-6.6-x86_64.cfg CentOS-6.6-x86_64.cfg
# 在第一次导入系统镜像后,Cobbler 会给镜像指定一个默认的 kickstart 自动安装文件在/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts 下的 sample_end.ks。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler list
distros:
   CentOS-6.6-x86_64
profiles:
   CentOS-6.6-x86_64
systems:
repos:
images:
mgmtclasses:
packages:
files:
# 查看安装镜像文件信息
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler distro report --name=CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Name                           : CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Architecture                   : x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Breed                          : redhat
Comment                        : 
Fetchable Files                : {}
Initrd                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS-6.6-x86_64/images/pxeboot/initrd.img
Kernel                         : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS-6.6-x86_64/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart Metadata             : {'tree': 'http://@@http_server@@/cblr/links/CentOS-6.6-x86_64'}
Management Classes             : []
OS Version                     : rhel7
Owners                         : ['admin']
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
# 查看所有的 profile 设置
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler profile report
# 查看指定的 profile 设置
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler profile report --name=CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Name                           : CentOS-6.6-x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Comment                        : 
DHCP Tag                       : default
Distribution                   : CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Enable gPXE?                   : 0
Enable PXE Menu?               : 1
Fetchable Files                : {}
Kernel Options                 : {}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart                      : /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/sample_end.ks  -->默认 ks 文件
Kickstart Metadata             : {}
Management Classes             : []
Management Parameters          : <<inherit>>
Name Servers                   : []
Name Servers Search Path       : []
Owners                         : ['admin']
Parent Profile                 : 
Internal proxy                 : 
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Repos                          : []
Server Override                : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
Virt Auto Boot                 : 1
Virt Bridge                    : xenbr0
Virt CPUs                      : 1
Virt Disk Driver Type          : raw
Virt File Size(GB)             : 5
Virt Path                      : 
Virt RAM (MB)                  : 512
Virt Type                      : kvm
# 编辑 profile,修改关联的 ks 文件
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler profile edit --name=CentOS-6.6-x86_64 --kickstart=/var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/CentOS-6.6-x86_64.cfg
# 修改安装系统的内核参数,在 CentOS7 系统有一个地方变了,就是网卡名变成 eno16777736 这种形式,但是为了运维标准化,我们需要将它变成我们常用的 eth0,因此使用下面的参数。但要注意是 CentOS7 才需要下面的步骤,CentOS6 不需要。
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler profile edit --name=CentOS-6.6-x86_64 --kopts='net.ifnames=0 biosdevname=0'
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler profile report CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Name                           : CentOS-6.6-x86_64
TFTP Boot Files                : {}
Comment                        : 
DHCP Tag                       : default
Distribution                   : CentOS-6.6-x86_64
Enable gPXE?                   : 0
Enable PXE Menu?               : 1
Fetchable Files                : {}
Kernel Options                 : {'biosdevname': '0', 'net.ifnames': '0'}
Kernel Options (Post Install)  : {}
Kickstart                      : /var/lib/cobbler/kickstarts/CentOS-6.6-x86_64.cfg
Kickstart Metadata             : {}
Management Classes             : []
Management Parameters          : <<inherit>>
Name Servers                   : []
Name Servers Search Path       : []
Owners                         : ['admin']
Parent Profile                 : 
Internal proxy                 : 
Red Hat Management Key         : <<inherit>>
Red Hat Management Server      : <<inherit>>
Repos                          : []
Server Override                : <<inherit>>
Template Files                 : {}
Virt Auto Boot                 : 1
Virt Bridge                    : xenbr0
Virt CPUs                      : 1
Virt Disk Driver Type          : raw
Virt File Size(GB)             : 5
Virt Path                      : 
Virt RAM (MB)                  : 512
Virt Type                      : kvm
# 每次修改完都要同步一次
[root@linux-node1 ~]# cobbler sync

 

3.4 安装系统

 

4. ks.cfg 文件简析

install
url --url=$tree  # 这些$开头的变量都是调用配置文件里的值。
text
lang en_US.UTF-8
keyboard us
zerombr
bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet"
# Network information
##$SNIPPET 变量默认是 cobbler 主机/var/lib/cobbler/snippets,参数即为目录下对应的文件.
$SNIPPET('network_config')    
timezone --utc Asia/Shanghai
authconfig --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
rootpw  --iscrypted $default_password_crypted
clearpart --all --initlabel
part /boot --fstype ext4 --size 1024  # CentOS7 系统磁盘默认格式 xfs
part swap --size 1024
part / --fstype ext4 --size 1 --grow
firstboot --disable
selinux --disabled
firewall --disabled
logging --level=info
reboot
%pre
$SNIPPET('log_ks_pre')
$SNIPPET('kickstart_start')
$SNIPPET('pre_install_network_config')
# Enable installation monitoring
$SNIPPET('pre_anamon')
%end
%packages
@base
@compat-libraries
@debugging
@development
tree
nmap
sysstat
lrzsz
dos2unix
telnet
iptraf
ncurses-devel
openssl-devel
zlib-devel
OpenIPMI-tools
screen
%end
%post
%end

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